Contact Mechanics Solver
GEOS contact solvers solve the the balance of linear momentum within a fractured solid, accounting for the continuity of stress across surfaces (i.e., fractures), i.e.
is the stress tensor in the solid,
is the outward unit normal to the surface,
is the stress jump across the surface.
On each fracture surface, a no-interpenetration constraint is enforced. Additionally, tangential tractions can also be generated, which are modeled using a regularized Coulomb model to describe frictional sliding.
There exist two broad classes of discretization methods that model fractures as lower dimensional entities (eg, 2D surfaces in a 3D domain): conforming grid methods and nonconforming (or embedded) methods. Both approaches have been implemented in GEOS in the following solvers: